Cleanness [taharah]

Rules of Different Types of Water

Question 74: If the lower part of a qalil(1) water that flows downward without pressure comes into contact with najasah (2), will its upper part remain clean [tahir]?

A:The upper part of the flowing water will be clean if the water can be said to be flowing from a higher level to a lower one.
(1) Qalil literally means 'scanty' but technically denotes an amount of water thatis less than kurr.
(2) Najasah signifies a substance that is inherently najis.

Question 75: After washing mutanajjis (3) clothes in water, whether running [jari] or kurr, is it obligatory to squeeze them outside the water to make them clean or do they become clean when squeezed inside it?
(3) Mutanajjis means something that has been made najis [unclean] because of coming into contact with najasah.

A: Squeezing is not a condition for cleaning the clothes and the like with water, whether running or kurr. Every action that drives out the water within them suffices in this regard, even if ;it is something like vigorous shaking, for instance.

Question 76: What is the rule of ritual ablution or bathing [wuzu' or ghusl] with a water that is heavy by nature such as a sea water which is made heavy by its natural salts (like the water of Urumiyeh Lake [in Iran]) or a water that is heavier than that?

A: The mere heaviness of the water due to the presence of salts does not prevent it from being considered as pure [mutlaq] water and the condition for the realization of the consequences of being pure water is to be regarded as such in urf (urf means the general view of ordinary people).

Question 77: For the rules pertaining to kurr water to apply (in the case of waters such as the water stored in train toilets, etc.), is it obligatory to know definitely that the water is kurr or is it enough to be able to assume so since it was previously known to be kurr?

A: If the water is ascertained to be kurr in its previous situation, it will be permissible to take that situation as the basis.

Question 78: According to ruling no. 147 of Imam Khomeini's (q) risalah, "it is not obligatory to give credence to what a child who can distinguish [mumayyiz] says concerning cleanness and uncleanness until he becomes mature." This ruling involves a difficult obligation because it entails, for instance, that parents should keep cleaning their child after he goes to the toilet until he becomes fifteen years old. What is the religious duty in this regard?

A: The statement of a child who is close to the age of maturity is valid.

Question 79: Occasionally, a certain substance is added to the water that makes its colour milky. Is such a water considered mixed [muzaf] and what is the rule with respect to using it for wuzu' and cleaning?

A: The rule of mixed water does not apply to it.

Question 80: What is the difference between running and kurr waters as far as cleaning is concerned?

A: There is no difference between them in this regard.

Question 81: Is it valid to perform ablution with the water collected from the vapor of a boiled salty water?

A: If the water distilled from a salty water can be called pure, the shar 'i rules of pure water will apply to it.

Question 82: When washing mutanajjis clothes in abundant water, is it obligatory to squeeze them or will it be sufficient if the water soaks the area of najasah after it is removed?

A:It will suffice if the water permeates and comes out of them, even if through their movement inside the abundant water, and squeezing them will not be a condition.

Question 83: When washing a mutanajjis carpet with a water that comes from the pipe through a faucet, does the carpet become clean simply after the pipe water reaches the mutanajjis area or is it obligatory to take out the water left in the carpet from washing?

A: When cleaning -with pipe -water, it is not necessary to squeeze out the water left from washing. The mutanajjis area becomes clean simply when water reaches it after the substance of najasah is removed and the water left from washing moves from the area tainted by the najasah.

Question 84: In order to clean one's foot one should walk at least fifteen steps. Is it so only after the removal of najasah's substance or even while it is there? Thus, does one's foot become clean when the substance of najasah is removed by walking fifteen steps?

A: The criterion is not to walk fifteen steps, rather it is sufficient to walk as many steps as would remove the substance of najasah, and the minimum required for walking to realize is represented by what before which the najasah is supposedly removed.

Question 85: Are the roads paved with asphalt or other materials considered as instances of the earth that cleans, so that walking on them purifies the foot's sole?

A: The ground paved with asphalt does not clean the foot's sole or whatever by which the foot is protected, such as a shoe.

Question 86: Is the sun considered one of the purifiers? If yes, what j are the conditions of cleaning by it?

A: The ground and all immovable objects like a building and its adjoining objects as well as whatever is fixed in it, such as lumbers and doors and the like, are purified when the sun shines over them after the substance of najasah is removed and provided they are wet when the sun falls on it.

Question 87: How are mutanajjis clothes that give out their color to the water while being washed cleaned?

A: If the transfer of the clothes' colour does not make the water mixed, they will become clean by pouring water on them.

Question 88: Someone puts some water in a vessel in order to use it for bathing for janabah. If some water falls from his body into the vessel during the bath, will the water remain clean? and will there be any problem in the completion of the bath with this water?

A: If the water falls into the vessel from some part of the body that is clean, it will be clean and there will be no problem in completing the bath with it.

Question 89: Is it possible to clean an oven built of a clay that is made using a mutanajjis water?

A: Its surface can be cleaned by washing and it is sufficient to clean the surface of the oven on which the bread dough is placed.

Question 90: Does the najis oil extracted from an animal remain najis after performing a chemical analysis on it so that it is turned into a material with new characteristics, or does the transformation [istihalah] rule apply to it?

A: For the cleanness and permissibility of najis substances or prohibited animal matters, it does not suffice merely to perform chemical analysis on them in away that gives them a new character.

Question 91: There is a bathhouse with a flat roof in our village. In his bathhouse, some drops that are resulted from the bath's steam after it gets cold falls from the roof on the heads of the people who are taking bath. Are these drops clean? Is the bath ghusl performed after the falling of the drops valid?

A: Bath's steam is ruled to be clean and so are the drops formed out of it and the contact of these drops with the body does not harm the validity of the bath and does not make the body najis.

Question 92: Scientific studies have shown that the mixture of drinking water with mineral pollutants and germs makes its specific gravity 0.1 percent. The filtration plant changes the waters obtained through drainage and separates these materials and germs from them by means of performing physical, chemical and biological operations, so that after being purified in various respects - physical (colour, taste, and odor), chemical (the mineral pollutants), and hygienic (harmful germs and parasites' eggs), they become by far much cleaner and better than the water of many rivers and lakes, especially the water used for irrigation.
Since drainage waters are mutanajjis, do they become clean by the operations mentioned above and does the transformation [istihalah] rule apply to them or is the water resulting after these operations is ruled to be najis?

A: Transformation is not actualized by the sole separation of mineral pollutants, germs, etc., from drainage waters unless their cleaning is done through vaporization and transformation of the vapor to water again. It should be noted that this rule applies only when drainage waters are mutanajjis, whereas it is not certain that they are always so.

Question 93: In our locality, the dead are washed on a wooden bed. Assuming that the corpse also bears an external najasah, does the wood become clean as a result of the purification of the corpse, given that the wood absorbs the water when first poured on it?

A: The bed becomes clean with the purification of the corpse and does not need to be cleaned separately.

Rules of Toilet [Takhalli]

Question 94: The migrant tribes do not have sufficient water, especially during the days of their migration, for cleaning the urinary outlet. Is it sufficient to do the cleaning with wood or pebbles?

A: The urinary outlet cannot be cleaned except by water and if it is not possible to clean with it the prayers will be valid.

Question 95: What is the rule with respect to cleaning the urinary outlet and the anus with qalil water?

A: For cleaning the urinary outlet it is sufficient to wash once with water, and for anus it is obligatory to wash it until both substance and traces of najasah are removed.

Question 96: Customarily, it is obligatory on someone who wants to perform the prayers to do istibra' after passing urine. Since there is a wound on my penis, some blood comes out of it during istibra' and because of the pressure on it and is mixed with the water used for cleaning, and therefore, makes my body and clothes najis. If I did not perform istibra', the wound would heal. Istibra' and pressure on the penis have certainly caused the wound to persist, and to continue with such a situation causes the wound not to heel until the next three months. Please explain whether I perform istibra' or not?

A: Istibra' is not obligatory, and furthermore, it will be impermissible if it causes harm. However, if one does not do istibra' after passing urine and then a moisture of doubtful character comes out, it will be ruled to be urine.

Question 97: I am a university student suffering from a problem for several years which causes me intense worry. The problem is that after passing urine and doing istibra', after five minutes or more, there comes out from the penis a fluid about the quarter of a drop. In the past when I did not perform istibra' the liquid that would come out after passing urine was several drops. However, since I do istibra' now its volume is about a quarter of a drop, or lesser, and I do not know if this fluid is clean and whether the prayers performed with it is valid or not.

A: The doubtful wetness that comes out after istibra' is considered clean except when it is known for certain to be urine.

Question 98: Occasionally, after passing urine and doing istibra'. there involuntarily comes out a wetness, which is like urine. Is it najis or clean? And were one to notice it all of a sudden after its occurrence, what is the rule concerning the prayers one has performed earlier? Is it obligatory in the future to examine whether this wetness, which come out involuntarily, is there?

A: The wetness that comes out after istibra', and one doubts whether it is urine or not, is not to be considered urine. It is to be considered clean, and it is not obligatory to do any examination in this case.

Question 99: Please, give an explanation concerning the wet discharge that one experiences.

A: The wetness that comes out occasionally after the discharge of semen is called "wazy.' That which comes out occasionally after passing urine is called 'wady,' and that which comes out occasionally after caressing between the spouses is called 'mazy. 'All of them are clean, and taharah is not harmed by them.

Question 100: A toilet seat was fixed in a direction totally different from the direction believed to be that of the qiblah. After some time it was known that the direction of the toilet seat was about at a 20 to 22 degrees angle with the direction of qiblah. Is it obligatory to change the direction of the toilet seat or not?

A: Assuming the deviation from the direction of qiblah is enough to be considered a deviation, there is no problem.

Question 101: Due to a disease of the urinary tract, the urine does not stop and a discharge comes out after passing urine and doing istibra'. I have consulted a physician and acted on his prescription but it had no use. What is my duty?

A: A doubt concerning discharge of urine after istibra' is not to be taken into account. And if one is certain that there is a discharge of some drops of urine, one's obligation is only to act on the duty of a person suffering from such a complaint [maslus] as explained in Imam Khomeini 's (q) risalah.

Question 102: How is istibra' done before istinja"?

A: There is no difference between doing it before or after istinja' and cleaning the anus.

Question 103: Employment in some companies and institutions depends on undergoing a medical examination which partly includes exposing one's private parts. Is that permissible when one needs to find a job?

A: It is not permissible for a mukallaf to expose his private parts before an unlawful onlooker, even if one's employment depends upon it, excepting when forgoing the job would be injurious to him and he is compelled to get it.

Rules of Wuzu [Ablution]

Question 104: Having made wuzu' for maghrib [sunset] prayers, is it permissible for one to touch the Noble Qur 'an and offer the isha' prayers?

A: Once a valid wuzu' is made and it has not become

Question 105: A person is used to wearing a wig, and it would be harmful for him to remove it. Is it permissible for him to do the mash [wiping over the head and the feet during wuzu] on the hair of the wig?

A: It is not permissible to do the mash on the wig hair. Rather, it is obligatory to remove it and to do mash on the skin, except when it involves .harm [haraj] and an unusual amount of hardship.

Question 106: I have been told that one can pour only two scoopfuls of water with the hand on the face while doing wuzu', and a third one would invalidate the wuzu'. Is that correct?

A: There is nothing wrong in pouring two or more scoopfuls of water on the face; but it is impermissible to wash the face and the hands more than two times.

Question 107: Is the oil secreted by the body in the natural course, and which covers the hair and the skin, considered a hajib [something that would prevent water from reaching the skin]?

A: It is not considered a hajib unless it is so much that the mukallaf finds that it prevents water from reaching the skin and the hair.

Question 108: For some time I did not wipe the ends of toes while doing mash and I would only wipe the upper part of the foot and a part of the toes' ends. Is that mash valid? If there were anything wrong with it, is it obligatory for me to repeat the prayers that I have performed?

A: If the ends of the toes are not covered in the mash, the wuzu' is invalid and the qaza' of the prayers offered earlier becomes obligatory. But if there is a doubt as so whether the mash performed covered the sides of the toes or not. then the wuzu' as well as the prayers performed will be ruled to be valid.

Question 109: What is meant by the 'ankle' up to where the mash of the foot is to be made?

A: It is generally held that it is the protruding spot on thesurface of the foot up to the foot joint. But precaution, which is not to be neglected, lies in carrying out the mash until the foot joint.

Question 110: What is the rule concerning wuzu' in mosques, courts, and government offices built by the government in other Islamic countries?

A: There is no problem in it and no shar 'i impediment.

Question 111: Is there any problem in washing once with several scoops of water lifted with the hand? What is the rule if one's intent was to do a single washing with several handfuls but more than that actually occurred?

A: That which matters is the intent and the singleness of washing, and no harm is done if there are more than one handfuls.

Question 112: A spring flows out from a land belonging to someone If we carry the water through pipes to an area at a distance of several kilometers, it is necessary to lay the pipes over the land of this owner and other lands belonging to other persons. In case of absence of willingness on their part, is it permissible to use the water of the spring for wuzu', ghusl and other acts of ritual cleaning?

A: If the spring flows out by itself and its water flows into the pipes before it can flow on the ground, and the land in which the spring is situated and the surrounding lands are used for the passage of pipes there is nothing wrong in using the water if it is not usually considered a violation of the land in which the spring is situated or of the other lands.

Question 113: In our locality the city water pressure is very weak in the upper stories and occasionally it does not reach them at all. As it is also very weak in the lower stories, some neighbors have installed pumps in the pipeline. When this pump is working the upper stories have no water and its pressure becomes so weak in the lower stories that it cannot be used. This problem becomes acute mostly at the times of wuzu' or ghusl so that sometimes there is no water. But if these pumps do not work, it is possible for all to use water for wuzu' and ghusl for prayers. On the other hand, the department of city water supply objects to the installation of these pumps and if it knows that a pump has been installed in a house it sends a warning to the owner, and if the owner fails to remove it they themselves take steps to remove it and charge a fine. On this basis, we have two following questions:
a) Is it permissible to install such a pump from the viewpoint of Islamic law?
b) If it is not permissible, what is the rule concerning the wuzu' and ghusl performed when the pump is working?

A: Installing such a pump and using if under the conditions mentioned in the question is impermissible, and the validity of the wuzu' and ghusl performed with it is questionable.

Question 114: What is your opinion with respect to performing wuzu' before the beginning of the time of prayers? In one of your verdicts you have stated that if wuzu' is done at a time near the beginning of the time of a prayers, the prayers performed therewith is valid. So what is the amount of time before the beginning of the time of prayers that you have in mind?

A: The basis is common opinion of the proximity to the beginning of the time of prayers, and there is no problem if the wuzu' is performed within that period.

Question 115: Is it recommended for someone who performs wuzu' to do mash on the lower part of the toes that touches the ground while walking?

A: The place of the mash is the upper part of the foot from the tip of toes up to the ankles, and the recommendation of wiping the lower part of the toes is not certain.

Question 116: If someone who performs wuzu' opens and closes the faucet while washing his hands and face with the intent of wuzu', what is the ruling concerning the mash performed?

A: There is nothing objectionable in it and it does not harm the validity of wuzu'. However, after having washed the left hand and before performing the mash with it if one puts his hand on the wet faucet, the validity of his wuzu' becomes questionable if, presumably, the water of wuzu' on his palms mixes with outside water.

Question 117: Some women claim that paint on fingernails is no hindrance to wuzu' and that it is permissible to do mash over transparent socks. What is your opinion?

A: If the paint prevents water from reaching the nails, the wuzu' is invalid, and mash on socks is invalid, however transparent they may be.

Question 118: Is it permissible for those wounded in war, who have lost control of urine due to the severing of the spinal cord, to hear Friday sermons and to take part in Friday and asr [afternoon] prayers, with the wuzu' particular to the maslus [those who lack urine control]?

A: It is obligatory upon them to begin the prayers after the wuzu' without any time lag, and to renew the wuzu' for asr prayers, except when there is no hadath after the first wuzu'. in which case the first wuzu' is sufficient for both prayers. Similarly, in case of absence of hadath after wuzu', the wuzu' performed before Friday sermons is sufficient for Friday prayers.

Question 119: Is it permissible for one who has been made maslus due to the injury of the spinal cord and war wounds to delay the prayers after performing wuzu` in order to participate in group prayers.

A: If there is a gradual discharge of urine after wuzu it is obligatory that there be no distance of time between the wuzu and the prayers.

Question 120: Someone who is unable to perform wuzu by himself is given wuzu by assistant [na` ib], after making the niyyah himself, and he does the mash with his own hand. When unable to do the mash himself, the assistant takes his hand and does the mash with it, and when that cannot be done the assistant takes the moisture from his hand and does the mash with it. But what is the rule when the one whose wuzu' is thus performed does not have any hand?

A: If he does not have a palm, the moisture is taken from his forearm, and if there is no forearm the moisture is to be taken from his face, and with it the mash of the head and the feet is to be carried out.

Question 121: While doing wuzu' is it necessary that the vessel should have a spout, like a tea pot? And if there is no spout, is the wuzu' with it invalid?

A: It is not necessary for the vessel containing water for wuzu' to have a spout and there is no obstacle to performing wuzu' with the water of a pot, whether the water is poured from it into the hand or the hand is dipped in the pot for scooping out with the hand.

Question 122: Near the place where Friday prayers is performed there is a place of wuzu' attached to the main mosque and the cost of water used there is not paid from the budget of the mosque. Is it permissible for those performing Friday prayers to use that water?

A: There is no problem in it as the water is for wuzu' by all of those who perform prayers without any restrictions.

Question 123: Is the wuzu' done for zuhr [noon] and asr prayers also sufficient for maghrib and isha' prayers [both performed in the evening] when one knows that there has not been any hadath during this time that might annul the wuzu ? Or is it obligatory to make a separate intent and wuzu' for each prayers?

A: It is not obligatory to do wuzu' for every prayers. Rather, it is permissible to offer as many prayers as one wants with a single wuzu' as long as it remains valid.

Question 124: Is it permissible to do wuzu' for a daily obligatory prayers before the beginning of its time?

A: There is no problem in doing wuzu 'for performance of a daily obligatory prayers a little before the beginning of its time.

Question 125;My feet are affected with paralysis and I walk with the help of medical shoes and crutches, and since it is not possible for me by any means to take out the shoes for wuzu', please explain my shar 'i duty concerning the mash of feet.

A: If the removal of shoes for mash of the feet involves harm [haraj] for you, to da mash on them is sufficient and valid.

Question 126: On reaching a place and searching for water for several parasangs, we found dirty water. Is it obligatory to do tayammum in this condition or to do wuzu' with this water?

A: If the water is clean and there is no harm in its use, it is obligatory to do wuzu' with it, and in its presence the need to substitute tayammum does not arise.

Question 127: Is wuzu' by itself recommended? And is it valid to perform wuzu' with the intent of qurbah [nearness to God] before the time of prayers and then to offer the prayers with that wuzu`?

A: Doing wuzu' for the sake of remaining with taharah is ; preferable in Islamic law and it is permissible to perform the prayers with a recommended wuzu'.

Question 128: How is a person who is chronically doubtful about the validity of his wuzu' to go to the mosque, pray, read the Noble Qur 'an, and perform the pilgrimage [ziyarat] of the infallible Imams (a)?,

A: No credence is to be attached to a doubt concerning cleanness after the performance of wuzu'; and it is permissible for one to offer prayers and read the Noble Qur 'an as long as one is not certain of the abrogation of his wuzu'.

Question 129: Is it required for the validity of wuzu' that the water should flow on all parts of the hand, or is it sufficient that the hands be wiped with a wet hand?

A: The condition for washing is that water should reach all over the hand, even if the water is made to reach all over the hand by wiping with the hand, but to wipe with a wet hand once is not sufficient.

Question 130: Is it permissible in wuzu' to do the mash of the head with the wetness of the left hand in the same way that it is permissible with the right hand? And is it permissible to do the mash of the head from front upwards?

A: There is no impediment to do the mash of the head with the left hand, though precaution lies in mash with the right hand. And precaution lies in doing the mash of the head from the upper part downwards, or from the middle of the head towards the direction of the forehead, even though the reverse is also sufficient.

Question 131: Is it sufficient in the mash of the head that the hair should get wet or is it obligatory that the hand's moisture should reach the skin of the head? How is someone using a wig to do the mash of his head?

A: Mash of the skin is not obligatory, and if the artificial hair are irremovable it is sufficient to do mash on them.

Question 132: What is the ruling concerning an interval of time, during wuzu' and ghusl, between the wiping or the washing of the bodily parts?

A: A time interval during ghusl is without problem. But the wuzu' will be invalid if the delay in completing the wuzu' results in the bodily members wiped or washed earlier drying up.

Question 133: What is the duty of a person suffering from continuous discharge of gas, through in a small amount, in regard to wuzu' and prayers?

A: If he cannot keep the wuzu 'for a time until the end of the prayers, and the renewal of the wuzu' during the prayers would cause him haraj, there is no impediment to offering one prayers with one wuzu'. That is, a wuzu 'for every prayers is sufficient, though it should become invalid during it.

Question 134: Some people residing in residential complexes refuse to pay their share of the expense of keeping a watchman and other services including cold and hot water, air conditioning, and the like. Are the prayers, fasts and other acts of worship of such persons who put the financial burden of the mentioned services on the shoulders of their unwilling neighbors invalid from the viewpoint of the Islamic law?

A: Each of them is indebted and is liable to pay for the expenses of the common facilities, in accordance with Islamic law, and should his intention be to avoid paying the cost of water with the intent to use it for wuzu' and ghusl, their validity would be questionable, or rather, they would be invalid.

Question 135: Someone performed janabah bath and wants to offer the prayers after some 3 or 4 hours, but he does not know whether his ghusl has remained valid or not. Is there any problem if he performs the wuzu' as a precaution?

A: Under the assumption mentioned, wuzu' is not obligatory, and there is no hindrance to taking precaution.

Question 136: Does an immature child become unclean by a minor hadath, and is it permissible to allow him to touch the writing of the Noble Qur'an?

A: Yes. the minor becomes unclean due to occurrence of anything that invalidates wuzu'; however, it is not obligatory upon the mulkallaf to prevent the minor from touching the script of the Noble Qur 'an.

Question 137: If one of the organs involved in wuzu' become najis after being washed and before the completion of the wuzu' what is its rule?

A: That does not harm the validity of the wuzu; though it is obligatory to clean that organ to obtain cleanness from impurity for the sake of prayers.

Question 138: Does the presence of some drops on the feet while doing their mash matter?

A: It is obligatory to dry the place of mash from the drops so that the wiping organ affects the part being wiped, not the reverse.

Question 139: Is one relieved of the obligation to do the mash of the right foot if the right hand, for instance, is amputated?

A: No, it is obligatory to do its mash with the left hand.

Question 140: What is the rule concerning one who is ignorant of the invalidity of his wuzu' and comes to know after completing it?

A: It is obligatory upon him to repeat the wuzu', and similarly to repeat the acts that require taharah, such as prayers.

Question 141: When one has a continually bleeding wound on one of the organs involved in wuzu' and it bleeds despite the bandage on it, how is one to perform wuzu"?

A: It is obligatory upon him to use a bandage, such as one made of nylon, that prevents blood from oozing through it.

Question 142: Is it permissible in wuzu' by immersion [irtimasi} to dip the hands and the face in water several times, or is it permissible to do that only twice?

A: It is permissible for one to dip the face and the hands only twice, the first with the intent of the obligatory washing and the second with the intent of recommended [mustahabb] washing. It is obligatory to make the intent of washing while .taking the hands out of water so that it be possible to do mash with the water of wuzu'.

Question 143: Is it makruh [undesirable] to dry up the moisture after wuzu', and is it recommended not to do it?

A: If a particular napkin or piece of cloth is specified for it, there is no problem with it.

Question 144: Is the artificial dye which women use to dye the hair of their hair and eyebrows an impediment to the validity of wuzu' or ghusl?

A: If it does not have a mass that prevents water from reaching the hair and is only dye, then the wuzu' and ghusl are valid.

Question 145: Is the presence of ink on the hands among the obstacles to water that invalidate the wuzu"?

A: If it prevents water from reaching the skin, the wuzu' is invalid and the decision concerning a particular instance rests with the mukallaf.

Question 146: Does the wuzu' become invalid if the moisture pertaining to the mash of the head comes into contact with the moisture on the face?

A: There is no problem in it. However, as precaution lies in doing the mash of the feet with the moisture remaining from the water of wuzu' in the palms, it is necessary to observe this precaution by refraining from touching the top of the forehead with the hand while doing the mash of the head lest it comes into contact with the moisture on the face, so that the moisture of the hand needed for the mash of the feet does not mix with the moisture of the face.

Question 147: A person who takes much more time for wuzu' than is ordinarily needed for it, what is he to do to become certain that he has washed the members?

A: It is obligatory on him to refrain from obsession [waswasah] and to ignore it in order to disappoint Satan. He should try to confine himself, like other people, to the extent that is required by Islamic law.

Question 148: There are marks of tattooing on some parts of my body and I am told that my ghusl, wuzu' and prayers are invalid. Please guide me in this matter.

A: If the tattooed marks are merely colour and there is nothing on the surface of the skin that prevents water from reaching it, then wuzu' and ghusl are valid and there is no impediment to the validity of prayers.

Question 149: If a moisture suspected of being either urine or semen comes out after urinating and doing istibra' and wuzu', what is its rule?

A: Under the assumption in the question, it is obligatory to perform wuzu' and ghusl in order to obtain certainty about cleanness.

Question 150: Please state the difference between the wuzu' of men and women.

A: There is no difference between men and women in respect of the acts of wuzu' and its procedure. However, it is recommended for men while washing the forearms to begin with the outer side and for women to begin with the inner side of the forearm.

Touching the Names of God, the Exalted, and His Verses

Question 151: What is the rule concerning the pronouns referring to God, the Exalted, such as in the expression, "In the Name of Him, the Exalted" [bismihi ta 'ala]?

A: The rule concerning His Names does not apply to pronouns.

Question 152: It has been usual to write 'Al...' or 'Ilah' instead of the name of'Allah,' what is the rule concerning one without wuzu' touching these words?

A: The rule concerning God's Name does not apply to the 'Al...', contrary to the word 'Ilah.'

Question 153: I work in a place where the word 'Allah' is written in the form of'Al...' in correspondence. Is it correct to write in this way instead of writing the real Divine Name mentioned?

A: There is no shar 'i impediment to it.

Question 154: Is it permissible to abstain from writing the Divine Name 'Allah' as 'Al...' solely for the probability that it might be touched by someone without wuzu"?

A: There is no impediment to doing so.

Question 155: The blind people use a script called Braille for writing and reading with the touch of their fingers. As this script is made of a combination of six dots, please answer this question: Is it necessary for the blind while learning the Noble Qur 'an and also while touching the sacred names written in Braille to be with wuzu'?

A: The raised dots which are signs for the original letters are not the real letters, and touching them, in cases -where they are used as signs for the letters of the Noble Qur 'an and the sacred names, does not require cleanness.

Question 156;What is the rule concerning a person without wuzu' touching such names of persons as Abdullah and Habibullah?

A: It is not permissible for one who is not clean to touch the name of God, even if it is part of a compound name.

Question 157: Is it permissible for someone having menses to wear a necklace engraved with the blessed name of the Prophet (a)?

A: There is no impediment to hanging it around the neck, though it is obligatory that the name does not touch the body.

Question 158: Is the impermissibility of touching the script of the Noble Qur 'an without cleanness limited to where it is in the sacred scripture, or does it include other books, tablets or walls etc.?

A: It is not limited to the sacred scripture but includes the Qur 'anic words and verses even when they occur in another book, or in a newspaper, journal, or tablet, or adorn a wall, etc.

Question 159: A family uses a dish for rice on which Qur'anic verses, such as Ayat al-Kursi [verse of the throne], are inscribed and that is meant for the sake of blessing. Is there anything objectionable in it?

A: There is no problem in it, except that it is obligatory that the Qur 'anic verses not be touched with hand by one without wuzu'.

Question 160: Is it obligatory for persons engaged in writing, by means of a writing instrument, the Divine Names, or the verses of the Qur 'an or the names of the Ma'sumin (a) to be with wuzu"?

A: Cleanness is not a condition, but it is not permissible for them to touch the writing without taharah.

Question 161: Is it unlawful to touch the emblem of the Islamic Republic of Iran without taharah?

A: If it is commonly known and read as the Name of Allah, it is unlawful to touch it without taharah, otherwise not.

Question 162: Is the emblem of the Islamic Republic of Iran considered as the name of God? What is the rule concerning its printing on official papers and its use in correspondence, etc. ?

A: There is no problem in writing or printing of the name of God or the emblem of the Islamic Republic of Iran, and precaution lies in observing the rule relating to the name of God in regard to the emblem of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Question 163: Some official papers in offices are adorned with the emblem of the Islamic Republic of Iran at the top, and so also the expression 'Huwa al-Shafi' [He is the Healer] is used on papers in clinics and hospitals. What is the rule concerning throwing them away after use, or letting them get into contact with blood?

A: There is no impediment to embellishing letters with the name of God or anything of the kind. But it is obligatory to refrain from handling them irreverently or allowing them to be defiled with najasah.

Question 164: What is the rule concerning using postal stamps on which verses of the Noble Qur 'an or the Name of Allah or other Names of God, the Glorious and Exalted, or the emblems of institutions containing verses of the Noble Qur'an, in periodicals, magazines and publications that are published every day.

A: There is no impediment to printing and publishing Qur'anic verses or the name 'Allah' or the like, but it is obligatory on whoever touches them with hand to observe the related rules of Islamic law and to refrain from handling them irreverently or allowing them to be defiled with najasah or touching them without taharah.

Question 165: Some newspapers have the Name of Allah or some Qur'anic verses written on them. Is it permissible to use them for wrapping foodstuffs, or to sit upon them, or to place them under the food and to eat upon them? Is it correct to throw them with garbage, considering the difficulty of getting rid of them in some other way?

A: There is no impediment to using these newspapers for purposes which are not commonly considered as irreverent towards something whose irreverent handling is forbidden, such as the word 'Allah' and the Qur 'anic verses written on them, and as long as they are not put in a place where they might gel contaminated with najasah.

Question 166: What is the rule concerning throwing postal stamps bearing the name of Allah, the Exalted, into a wastepaper basket. Is it permissible to touch them without wuzu?

A: It is not permissible to touch the word Allah without taharah, or to allow it to come into contact with najasah or to throw it in places which would amount to treating them with irreverence and contempt.

Question 167: Is it permissible to touch the words engraved on finger rings?

A: If they belong to words that require taharah for touching them, it is not permissible to touch them without taharah.

Question 168: Is it permissible for vendors to cover what they sell with newspapers that we are certain to contain the name of Allah, the Exalted? And is it permissible to touch them without wuzu'?

A: There is no impediment to using newspapers for covering things sold if that is not considered irreverence towards the name of Allah, the Exalted, Qur'anic verses, or the names of the Ma 'sumin (a) written on them. But it is not permissible for someone without wuzu' to touch them knowingly.

Question 169: What is the rule concerning citing the names of the prophets (a) and Qur'anic verses, in newspapers with the probability that they might be burnt, or get under someone's hand or feet?

A: There is no shar'i impediment to writing verses of the Noble Qur 'an or the names of the Ma 'sumin, may Peace be upon them, in newspapers, magazines, etc., but it is obligatory to refrain from their irreverent handling, and allowing them to get contaminated with najasah, and from touching them without taharah.

Question 170; What is the rule concerning throwing something with the names of Allah, the Exalted, on it into rivers and streams?

A: There is no impediment to throwing it in rivers or streams if that is not commonly considered as irreverence towards them.

Question 171: Is it obligatory while throwing corrected exam papers in garbage or while burning them to ascertain that they do not contain the names of Allah, the Exalted, and of the Ma'sumin (a)?

A: It is not obligatory to investigate, and when the presence of the name of Allah, the Exalted, is not known on a page, there is no impediment to throwing them in garbage. However, as to papers which are partly blank, and can be used for writing upon them or can be used for making cardboard, burning them and throwing them away may amount to wastefulness and is questionable.

Question 172: What are the sacred names whose veneration is obligatory and which it is unlawful to touch without wuzu'?

A: It is not permissible to touch the names of the Essence of God, the Exalted, and the names of attributes special to God, the Gracious, without wuzu'. And obligatory precaution lies in including, along with the names of the Divine Essence, the names of the great prophets and the infallible Imams (a) in the rule mentioned.

Question 173: What is the rule concerning the names and titles of the Infallible Imams and the prophets (a)?

A: An obligatory precaution lies in not touching them without wuzu'.

Question 174: We have amassed a considerable quantity of various publications received from domestic institutions since the establishment of the embassy. As most pages of these publications contain the names of Allah, the Exalted, and the like, please offer a solution for the problem arising from their storage?

A: There is no problem in burying them in the ground or leaving them in the desert if it does not involve irreverence to them.

Question 175: What are the shar`i methods of erasing the holy names and Qur'anic verses when there is a need to do so? What is the rule with respect to burning papers that carry God's Name and Qur'anic verses on them when it becomes necessary to destroy those papers in order to keep secrets?

A: There is no problem in burying them in the ground or converting them, using water, into pulp. But burning them is questionable and, when considered irreverent, impermissible except when exigency calls for it and it is not feasible to cut out Qur 'anic verses and the holy names from them.

Question 176: What is the rule concerning shredding the holy names and Qur'anic verses into very small particles in such a way that no two letters remain connected and the names and verses become illegible and does it suffice in their effacement, in order to evade their rule, to change their written form by adding some letters to them or erasing some of their letters?

A: Shredding is not sufficient when it does not result in the disappearance of the word 'Allah' or Qur 'anic verses. It is not sufficient either to change the written form to avoid the rule from applying to the letters drawn with the iment of writing the word 'Allah'. However, it is not unlikely that changing the form of the letters suspends the application of the rule due to its amounting to effacement, though precaution lies in refraining from it.

Rules of Janabah Bath [Ghusl Due to Sexual Activity]

Question 177: Is it permissible for a junub [an individual who is in the condition of janabah, namely, has had sexual intercourse] to offer prayers with tayammum while his body and clothes contain najasah when there is little time or should he clean himself, perform ghusl, and offer the missed prayers?

A: If there is not sufficient time to clean the body and the clothes, or to change the clothes, and it is not possible to offer the prayers while naked due to coldness and the like, he should pray with tayammum instead of janabah bath in unclean clothes. This satisfies his obligation and he is not obliged to offer its qaza'.

Question 178: Does semen's entry into the vagina without penetration result in janabah?

A: That does not cause janabah.

Question 179: Is it obligatory for women to perform ghusl after a vaginal examination with medical instruments?

A: Ghusl is not obligatory as long as there is no emission of mani.

Question 180: If the penetration occurs up to the glans and there is no emission of semen and the woman has not reached orgasm, is the ghusl obligatory only upon her or on the man, or both?

A: Under the assumption mentioned, ghusl is obligatory on both of them.

Question 181: In respect of women's wet dream, when does ghvsl become obligatory upon them? Is the discharge that comes out at the time of caressing considered mani? And is it obligatory upon them to do ghusl despite their not reaching orgasm or feeling any weakness in the body? In general, when do women become junub without intercourse?

A: When a woman observes on awaking traces of mani on her clothes, janabah bath becomes obligatory upon her. However, the discharge that comes out after caressing and play and the like is not ruled to be mani except when accompanied by a weakness in the body or when she has an orgasm.

Question 182: Is janabah bath obligatory on girls also when they have a wet discharge involuntarily? Is it mani and requires ghusl, or requires ghusl only when accompanied by sexual excitement?

A: If the discharge is due to sexual excitement and accompanied with it, it would be considered mani and results in janabah even if the excitement be involuntary.

Question 183: Is ghusl obligatory on girls when excited sexually due to reading romances or some other cause. If she is required to perform ghusl, what kind of ghusl is obligatory on her?

A: Reading books that cause sexual excitement is impermissible, and in all conditions janabah bath is obligatory upon her on the discharge of mani.

Question 184: When a woman senses a wet discharge with sexual excitement while caressing, is janabah bath obligatory upon her?

A: When she knows that there is a discharge of mani from her, the ghusl becomes obligatory upon her, and also when she doubts whether the discharge is mani or not, and is accompanied with a particular excitement.

Question 185: When a woman takes ghusl after intercourse with her husband, and his semen remains in her vagina, will her ghusl be valid if the semen were to come out after ghusl? And is the semen that comes out later clean or najis?

A: The semen that comes out from her is najis at all times. However, if the discharge from her after ghusl is the man's semen, she is not required to take ghusl another time.

Question 186: I have been suffering from doubt in janabah bath since some time, so much so that I do not have intercourse with my wife. Nevertheless, now and again I find myself in a state that I think I am required to perform janabah bath. In fact I bathe twice or thrice a day. This doubt has made me helpless. What am I to do?

A: The rule concerning janabah does not apply when there is doubt, except when there is a discharge accompanied by the legal signs of discharge of mani, or when one is certain of the discharge of mani.

Question 187: Is the janabah bath performed in the menstrual state valid so as to discharge a junub woman other duty?

A: Under the assumption mentioned, the validity of the ghusl performed is questionable.

Question 188: Is a junub woman in the menstrual state required to perform janabah bath after becoming clean, or is it that it is not obligatory upon her due to her being unclean?

A: Janabah bath is obligatory upon her in addition to the ghusl of menses, and it is permissible to confine to janabah bath, although precaution lies in making the intent to perform both the ghusls.

Question 189: When is a discharge from a person considered to be mani?

A: When it is accompanied by sexual excitement and weakness of body and ejaculation, it is subject to the rule of mani.

Question 190: In some cases it is observed that after bathing there remain traces of soap around the nails of hands and feet which were not at first visible in the bathroom; however, after coming out from the bathroom the whiteness of soap becomes visible. As some persons do ghusl and wuzu' without knowing it or paying attention to that, what is one's duty in such cases, when it is uncertain whether water has reached the skin under the whiteness?

A: The sole presence of a layer of lime or soap that become visible after the body dries up, does not harm the validity of wuzu' or ghusl, except when it is an obstacle to the washing of the skin.

Question 191;What is the rule concerning the discharge that is experienced during caressing and foreplay between husband and wife?

A: If it does not come out in an ejaculation or is not accompanied with weakness in the body it is not ruled to be mani.

Question 192: A brother says that it is obligatory to clean the body of najasah, such as semen for instance, before the ghusl, and if cleaned during ghusl, the ghusl will be invalid. Supposing what he says is right, are the prayers performed earlier invalid, and is their qaza' obligatory, keeping in view that I was ignorant of this matter?

A: Bathing for the cleanness of the body should be separated from janabah bath. However, it is not obligatory to clean the whole body before beginning the ghusl. Rather it is sufficient in the ghusl of every member that it should be clean during it. Thus if the member was clean before its ghusl, the ghusl and the prayers performed with it would be both valid. But if the member were not clean before its ghusl, the ghusl and the prayers would be both invalid and it would be obligatory to perform the qaza' of the prayers.

Question 193: Is the discharge occurring during sleep to be considered semen if it were not accompanied with any of threefold signs (ejaculation, sexual excitement, and weakness of the body) and it was not noticed except after awakening and observing wetness on one's underclothing?

A: If the discharge occurs as a result of orgasm, or it is ascertained to be semen, it will be considered semen and result in janabah.

Question 194: I am young and live with my poor family. I have very frequent emissions of semen and I am ashamed to ask my father to give me the money for the bathhouse expenses as we do not have a bathroom in our house. Please guide me.

A: There is no reason to be ashamed for carrying out shar`i duties, and shame cannot be a legitimate excuse for not carrying out an obligation. In any case, if you do not possess sufficient means to perform janabah bath, your duty is to perform tayammum instead of ghusl for the sake of carrying out prayers and fasts.

Question 195: In one of the deprived villages, the common bath was in disuse due to its lying in ruins for a long time and the villagers were facing hardship in cleaning and obtaining taharah. When pressed by them, we sent a written request to the provincial office stating that the bathhouse of our village had collapsed as a result of heavy snowing and rain and is irreparable and that we need to build a new bath. Following this request, the provincial authorities sent a certain amount as an aid for building the bath out of the budget for emergencies, and the amount was handed over to the office of the Jihad to build the bath.
The question here is whether there is any shar 'i objection to using the bathroom for taharah and ghusl in the light of what has been stated?

A: To give a report or declaration contrary to truth is impermissible, but there is no problem in the villagers' using the bath in the said conditions.

Question 196: I am faced with a problem, which is that even a single drop of water is harmful for my body when washed, or even when wiped. While washing my body, even partly, my heartbeat increases and there are other problems. Is it permissible for me in such a condition to have intercourse with my wife, as I do tayammum instead of ghusl for several months and I pray and enter the mosque.

A: It is not obligatory upon you to refrain from intercourse, and after becoming junub, if you are unable to perform janabah bath, your shar 'i duty is to do tayammum instead of ghusl for the acts that require taharah. And with tayammum there is no impediment to your entering the mosque, offering prayers, touching the script of the Noble Qur 'an and all the other acts that require taharah from the impurity of janabah.

Question 197: Is it obligatory or recommended to face the qiblah during ghusL?

A: Facing the qiblah during ghusl is not obligatory.

Question 198: Is it valid to perform ghusl with the wash water resulting from ghusl from major hadath, with the knowledge that the ghusl was done with water in qalil quantity and the body was clean before it? And is it valid for each of the spouses to use the wash water resulting from ghusl performed by the other after major hadath?

A: There is no impediment to performing ghusl with wash water resulting from ghusl after major hadath if the body had been pure, or for each of the spouses to do ghusl with the wash water resulting from the ghusl of another.

Question 199: If one performing janabah bath has minor hadath while performing the ghusl, is it obligatory upon him to repeat the ghusl or to finish the ghusl and to do wuzu"?

A: It is not obligatory to repeat and it has no effect. Rather, one should complete his ghusl, but it does not remove the necessity of doing wuzu' for prayers and other acts that require taharah from minor hadath.

Question 200: Is the thick discharge resembling semen that comes out, involuntarily and without there being any sexual excitement, after urinating, subject to the rule of semen?

A: It is not subject to the rule of semen except when one is certain that it is that, or is accompanied with the shar 'i signs associated with the discharge of semen.

Question 201: When there are several recommended or obligatory or various ghusl to be performed, is one sufficient for all the rest?

A: If one of them isjanabah bath and the intent is made to perform it, it suffices for all the other ghusl.

Question 202: Does a ghusl other than janabah bath relieve one of the duty of wuzu ?

A: It is not sufficient, as a matter of precaution.

Question 203: In janabah bath, is it a condition of its validity that water should flow over the body?

A: The condition is that the body be washed with the intent of ghusl and the flowing of water is not a condition.

Question 204: When one knows that if he were to become junub by having intercourse with his wife, he would have no water for ghusl, or there would not be enough time for ghusl and prayers, is it permissible to have intercourse?

A: If he is able to perform tayammum in case of the inability to perform ghusl, there is no impediment to becoming junub by doing that.

Question 205: I am a youth of 22 and for some time my hair have started falling. This has caused me worry and I decided to have hair planted on my head by a hair planting agent. The question is: what is the rule about ghusl if planting the hair requires that water should no reach some parts of the skin of the head?

A: If the artificial hair can not be removed, or if their removal is harmful, or would put you in haraj, and it is not possible for water to reach the skin in their presence, then the ghusl per formed while wearing them is ruled to be valid.

Question 206: Is it sufficient in janabah bath to observe the order between the head and the other parts of the body, or is the observance of order necessary also in washing the two sides?

A: Observance of order between the sides is also obligatory and the right side is to be washed before the left.

Question 207: When one is going to perform the tartibi [ordinal] bath, is there any problem if one washes first one's back then makes the intent and perform the tartibi bath thereafter?

A: There is no impediment to washing one's bank or any other part of the body before making the intent of ghusl and starting the ghusl. The way of doing tartibi bath is to make the intent of ghusl after cleaning the whole body. Then one washes one's head and neck first, then the right half of the body from the shoulders to the feet, then the left half in a similar way. That is how a valid ghusl is performed.

Question 208: Is it obligatory upon women to wash all the hair during ghusl and if water does not reach all the hair in ghusl does that make the ghusl invalid, even if one knows that water has reached the entire skin of the head?

A: As a precaution, it is obligatory to wash the entire hair.

Rules of Invalid Ghusl

Question 209: What is the rule for someone who reaches the age of taklif and is ignorant of the obligation of ghusl and how to make it, and in this way he passes ten years before coming to know about taqlid and the necessity of ghusl? What is his duty concerning the qaza' of his fasts and prayers?

A: It is obligatory upon him to do the qaza' of the prayers offered in the states of janabah, and so also the fasts if he knows that he was junub as a result of orgasm and discharge of mani, or some other cause resulting in janabah, while being ignorant of the junub 's duty to perform ghusl before fasting. Rather, that which is more probable is that it is obligatory upon him to give the kaffarah [atonement] if his ignorance of the rule was due to negligence. However, if he basically was not aware of being junub and if he does not notice that he is junub until the daybreak on the day of fasting, he is not obliged to do the qaza' of the fast, though he has to offer the kaffarah.

Question 210: A youth has been masturbating due to ignorance before reaching fourteen and thereafter, and he would not bath after the discharge of semen. What is his duty? Is it obligatory upon him to perform the ghusl of this period during which he masturbated and had seminal discharge? Are all his prayers and fasts made during this period and until now invalid and is he obliged to offer their qaza', with attention to the fact that he would not perform janabah bath after orgasm and did not know that the discharge of semen requires one to perform ghusl ?

A: A single ghusl is sufficient for the past janabah, and it is obligatory upon him to do the qaza' of all the prayers that he is certain of having offered in the state of janabah. As to the fasts, it is not obligatory to do their qaza' and they would be ruled to be valid if he were ignorant during the nights of fasts that he is junub. But if he knew that he had had a discharge of semen and had become junub without knowing that ghusl is necessary for the validity of his fast, it is obligatory for him to do the qaza' of the days he had fasted in the state of janabah, and as precaution he should also pay the kaffarah of all the days if his ignorance were due to negligence.

Question 211: Regrettably I had had no knowledge of the matter of janabah and the rules of janabah bath for several years. As I have been praying and fasting during this period, what is my shar'i duty?

A: If you have been basically ignorant of having been junub on the days of fasting during this period, your fasts are valid. But it is obligatory upon you to offer the qaza' of their prayers if you are certain that you have offered them in the state of janabah.

Question 212: Someone becomes junub and performs ghusl, but his ghusl is incorrect and invalid. What is his duty concerning the prayers that he has offered after such a bath if he has been ignorant of it.

A: A prayers performed with an invalid ghusl and in the state of janabah is invalid and it is obligatory to repeat it or offer its qaza'.

Question 213: I took a bath with the intent of performing an obligatory ghusl, and after emerging from the bathroom I remembered that I did not observe the order [tartib] in the ghusl and I thought that the intent of tartib is sufficient, and I did not repeat the ghusl. Now I wonder if I should perform the qaza' of all the prayers offered thereafter.

A: If it is probable that the ghusl performed by you was valid and while performing it you were attentive to that which is required for its validity, you have nothing to do. However, if you are certain that your bath was invalid, it is obligatory upon you to do the qaza' of all the prayers.

Question 214: I used to do the janabah bath in this order: first, the right side, then the head, and thirdly the left side. What is my duty in regard to the prayers and fasts offered?

A: A ghusl performed in the manner mentioned is invalid and does not remove the hadath. Accordingly, the prayers performed with a ghusl in that manner are invalid and their qaza' is obligatory. However, the fasts are considered to be valid as you believed ghusl in the said manner to be valid, and you had not intentionally remained junub.

Rules of Tayammum [Dry Ablution]

Question 215: Is it valid to perform tayammum on things on which tayammum is valid, such things as earth, mortar or marble, when they are on a wall, or is it necessary that they be on the surface of the ground?

A: It is not a condition for the validity of tayammum that it should be done on the ground.

Question 216: When one becomes junub and access to the bath is not possible and the janabah remains for several days, is it obligatory to do tayammum for every prayers, as wuzu' was done earlier, after the first prayers for which tayammum was made? Or is it sufficient to do tayammum only once? Under the said assumption, is it obligatory to do tayammum for every prayers?

A: When a junub person performs a valid tayammum as substitute for janabah bath and is affected with a minor hadath after that, it is obligatory upon him to perform wuzu' for the acts requiring taharah as long as the lawful excuse that makes tayammum permissible is not removed.

Question 217: Do the established rules that apply to ghusl also apply to tayammum performed as substitute for ghusl in the sense that it is permissible to enter the mosque with it?

A: All of the shar'i effects of ghusl apply to tayammum performed as substitute, except when the tayammum is performed as a substitute for ghusl due to shortness of time.

Question 218: Is it permissible for one suffering from incontinence of urine due to the severance of the spinal chord as a result of wounds suffered in war, to perform tayammum as substitute for ghusl for such recommended acts as Friday .bath, and bath for pilgrimage and so on, as it is somewhat difficult to take bath?

A: Substituting tayammum for ghusl in cases other than where taharah is a condition, is questionable. However, there is no impediment to doing it as a substitute for recommended ghusl in cases involving hardship and harm [haraj] with the hope of realizing the sought purpose.

Question 219: Is it permissible for one who cannot find water, or one for whom using water is harmful and who performs tayammum as a substitute for janabah bath, to enter the mosque and attend group prayers? How about his reading the Noble Qur'an?

A: As long as the excuse permitting tayammum is not removed and the tayammum remains valid, he can perform all the acts for which taharah is required.

Question 220: One has a discharge during sleep and on waking up he does not remember anything but finds wetness on his clothes. There is no time for him to sit and try to remember, for the there is little time remaining to offer the subh [morning] prayers. What is one to do in such a state? How is he to make the intent for tayammum, as substituting for the ghusl or the wuzu? What is the basic rule?

A: If one knows that he has had an orgasm and become junub, ghusl is obligatory upon him, and if the time is short, he must do tayammum after cleaning his body and do ghusl thereafter. But when there is doubt concerning the occurrence of orgasm or janabah, the rule of janabah does not apply to him.

Question 221: If a person becomes junub on several continuous nights, what is his duty, in view of what has been mentioned in the noble traditions that going to bath continuously for days causes illness?

A: It is obligatory upon him to do ghusl, except when using water is harmful for him, in which case his duty is tayammum.

Question 222: A person wants to pray and keep fast in the blessed month of Ramazan, but he becomes junub due to involuntary discharge of semen. If due to some reason he cannot take bath every day and every time, what is he to do to be able to offer his prayers and keep his fasts?

A: When he has a substantial shar 'i excuse for not taking janabah bath, it is obligatory upon him to do tayammum as substitute, and with it his prayers and fasts would be valid.

Question 223: I am in an unhealthy condition in which I suffer from involuntary emissions of semen, which are frequent and the discharge is not accompanied with pleasure. What is my duty in regard to prayers?

A: If doing ghusl for every prayers is harmful, or involves haraj for you, offer prayers with tayammum after cleaning your body.

Question 224: What is the rule if one were to abstain from janabah bath for the subh prayers believing that he would fall sick if he were to take bath?

A: When he believes ghusl to be harmful, there is nothing wrong in doing tayammum, and the prayers offered therewith is valid.

Question 225: I am suffering from a skin disease - which is not something serious - so that the skin dries up whenever I take a bath or even when I wash my hand or face. Accordingly, I am forced to apply oil to my skin and that creates difficulty when doing wuzu', which is utmost when doing wuzu' for subh prayers. Accordingly, is it permissible for me to do tayammum instead of wuzu' in the mornings?

A: When using water is harmful for you, your duty is to refrain from wuzu' and to do tayammum instead.

Question 226: A person prays with tayammum due to shortness of time, and after getting through the prayers he comes to know that there is still enough time to do wuzu'. What is the rule concerning his prayers?

A: It is obligatory upon him to repeat that prayers.

Question 227: We live in an area where there is no bathroom or any place for bathing. At times we wake up junub before the subh prayers call during the blessed month of Ramazan, and as it is unseemly for youths to get up at midnight before the eyes of the people and to take a bath with the water out of a waterskin or tank, and as water is also cold at that time, what is our duty concerning keeping fast on the next day in such a condition? Is tayammum permissible? And what is the rule if one were not to keep the fast for not having performed the ghusl?

A: Sole difficulty of an act or its being unseemly in the people's eyes in not a shar'i excuse. Rather, one is obliged to take ghusl in any manner that he can, as long as it does not involve haraj on the mukallaf or harm, and when any of them is present he can change to tayammum. So if he does tayammum before the daybreak, his fast is valid, and if he does not do tayammum, his fast would be invalid; but it is obligatory upon him to refrain from eating and drinking throughout the day of the fast.

Rules Pertaining to Women

Question 228: Considering that my mother is a descendant of the Noble Prophet (S), am I too a sayyid? If so, can I consider my monthly period as hayz [menstrual discharge] until the age of sixty years and abstain from praying and fasting during it?

A: A woman whose father is not a Hashimite, even if her mother be a sayyid, will consider every discharge of blood after the age of 50 years as istihazah.

Question 229: What is the duty of a woman whose menses start while she is observing a fast to fulfill a certain vow?

A: Her fast will be nullified by the starting of menses, even if they cover only a part of the day of the fast, and it is obligatory for her to perform its qaza' after being cleansed.

Question 230: What is the rule pertaining to a spotting seen by a woman after she is convinced that she has become cleansed, and is certain that the spot neither possesses the quality of blood nor of blood mixed with water?

A: If it is not blood, it does not fall under the category of hayz and determining what it is rests with the woman.

Question 231: What is the rule concerning postponement of menses by using medicines for the purpose of fasting?

A: There is no problem in it.

Question 232 : If a slight bleeding occurs during pregnancy, though it does not result in miscarriage, is it obligatory for a woman to perform ghusl? What is obligatory for her to do?

A: Any blood discharge during pregnancy and possessing the qualities and conditions of hayz is hayz; otherwise it is istihazah. If it is istihazah, and is either profuse or of moderate quantity, it is obligatory for her to perform ghusl.

Question 233: A woman who has had regular monthly periods of 7 days, for example, has a discharge for 12 days as a result of using a contraceptive device. Is the discharge after the seventh day to be considered hayz, or is it istihazah?

A: If the discharge does not stop after the tenth day, the days of the regular monthly period (in this case seven) are those of hayz, and the remaining days those of istihazah.

Question 234: Is it permissible for a woman to enter the shrines of the Imams' descendants during her menses or while having nifas [puerperal discharge]?

A: If it is not considered disrespectful it is permissible.

Question 235: Is a woman who has undergone curettage categorized ask having nifas or not?

A: If she has a discharge after miscarriage, even when the fetus is an alaqah, she will be considered as having nifas.

Question 236: To which category does the blood discharge occurring after menopause belong? What is the religious duty of such a woman?

A: It is not improbable that it would fall under the category of istihazah.

Question 237: One of the methods of preventing unwanted births is the use of contraceptive pills, and women who take these pills get blood spots during and outside their menstrual period. What is the rule applicable to these spots?

A: If these spots do not possess the characteristics mentioned in Islamic law for hayz, they will not be considered hayz; rather the rules of istihazah will apply to them.

Rules of the Dead

Question 238: The shrouding and burial of the dead is performed presently by hired workers or by the staff of cemeteries, irrespective of whether the body is that of a man or a woman. Is there anything wrong in a burial in which it is known that the persons shrouding and burying the corpse are not its maharim?

A: Sameness of sex is necessary for washing the dead. Hence where the ghusl can be given by persons of the same gender it is not valid for a person of the opposite sex to engage in it, and his/her doing so renders the ghusl void. But sameness of sex is not required for shrouding and burying.

Question 239: It is presently common in villages to wash the dead at home, and at times the dead person has no executor but only minor children. So what is your opinion concerning such situations ?

A: The performance of acts generally necessary for funeral, including its washing, shrouding and burial, does not depend upon the permission of the minor's guardian, and the presence of a legally disabled person among the heirs poses no problem.

Question 240: A person dies in a collision or by falling from a height. What is the duty in case bleeding continues after death? Is it obligatory to wait till it stops by itself or by using medical means, or can it be buried despite the continuation of the bleeding?

A: It is obligatory to cleanse the corpse as far as possible before giving it ghusl, and if it is possible to wait for the bleeding to stop, or to stop it, it is obligatory to do so.

Question 241: While digging a canal in a cemetery changed into a public square a bone belonging to a corpse buried 40 to 50 years ago is found in it. Is there anything wrong in touching such bones for the purpose of viewing them? Are these bones najis?

A: The bone of a Muslim 's corpse which has been given ghusl is not najis, though it is obligatory to bury it under the ground.

Question 242: Is it permissible for a person to shroud his father, mother or a relative with a shroud [kafan] which he had bought for himself?

A: There is no problem in it.

Question 243: A medical team is constrained for the purpose of conducting medical research and experiments to remove the heart and some arteries from a corpse, which are buried a day after the study. Please answer the following questions:
1) Is it permissible for us to undertake such activity despite our knowledge that these corpses on whom the tests are conducted belong to Muslims?
2) Is it permissible to bury the heart and arteriesk separately?
3) Is it permissible to bury these parts with another corpse, especially when we are certain that the separate burial of the heart and the arteries will cause a number of problems?

A: It is absolutely permissible to dissect a corpse if it helps save human lives, or promotes knowledge of the medical science needed by society, or leads to information about a disease threatening people's lives, though supererogatory precaution requires that corpses of Muslims be not used for this purpose. As to the matter of organs which have been removed from a Muslim's corpse, Islamic law rules that they be buried along with the body, and if there is an obstacle to burying them with the body, there is no problem in burying them separately.

Question 244: A person buys a shroud [kafan] for himself and then spreads it out and uses it at times of obligatory and supererogatory prayers and while reciting the Noble Qur 'an, and at the time of death it is used for shrouding him, Is this permissible? Is it correct from the Islamic point of view for a person to buy for himself a kafan and write Qur'anic verses on it with the sole purpose of being clothed in it after death?

A: There is no problem in doing any of the things stated.

Question 245: Recently a woman's body was discovered in an ancient grave dating back to about 700 years. It is big and in an intact state with some hair on the skull. In the opinion of the archeologists who discovered it, it is the body of a Muslim woman. Is it permissible that this gigantic and extraordinary corpse be displayed by the Museum of Natural Sciences (after repairing the grave and placing the body in it) for the visitors for an educational purpose, or for the sake of a reminder by displaying it with suitable verses and traditions.

A: If it is confirmed that this corpse belongs to a Muslim, it is obligatory to bury it again immediately.

Question 246: In a village there is a graveyard which is neither the private property of anyone nor a waqf [endowment]. Is it permissible for the inhabitants of the village to prevent the dead from the city or other villages, or someone who has willed to be buried there, form being buried there?

A: If the public graveyard in the village is neither the private property of anyone nor a waqf for the specific use of the villagers, they are not entitled to prevent others from burying their dead in it, and if anyone makes a will to bury him there it is obligatory to act accordingly.

Question 247: There are traditions, such as the one in the book La'ali al-Akhbar, that it is recommended to sprinkle water on graves. Is this istihbab limited to the day of burial or is it general, as is the opinion of the author of al-La'ali What is your eminence's opinion?

A: There is no problem in sprinkling water on the grave on the day of burial or later with a benefactory intent, but to establish its istihbab is difficult.

Question 248: Why is a dead body not buried at night? Is burial prohibited during nighttime?

A: There is no problem in burying the dead at night.

Question 249: A person who died in a car accident was given ghusl, and shrouded and brought to the graveyard. When he was about to be buried, they found that his coffin and shroud were stained with blood which had come out of his head. Is it obligatory to change the shroud in such a circumstance?

A: If it is possible to wash the blood-stained area or to cut it off, or to change the shroud, it is obligatory to do so; otherwise it is permissible to bury the corpse in that state.

Question 250: What is the rule if that corpse has been buried in a blood stained-dead shroud?

A: There is no problem in it, and it is not obligatory, or is rather impermissible, to exhume the body for washing or changing its shroud.

Question 251: If three months have passed after the burial of that corpse with blood stained dead clothes, is it permissible to exhume it?

A: It is not permissible to exhume it in the stated circumstances.

Question 252: We request your eminence to reply to the following three questions?
(1) If a woman dies during childbirth, what is the rule pertaining to the unborn child in the womb in the following circumstances:
a) If the soul has recently entered it (after three months or more) and there is a strong possibility of its dying on being removed from the womb.
b) If the age of the fetus is 7 months or more.
c) If the fetus has died in the womb.
(2) If a woman dies during childbirth, is it obligatory for others to fully ascertain whether the unborn baby is dead or alive?
(3) If a woman dies during childbirth while the baby is still alive in her womb, and a person orders, in violation of the common practice, the mother's burial along with the unborn child even if it is alive, what is your opinion in this regard?

A: If the unborn child dies with the death of its mother it is not obligatory to bring it out; rather to do so is not permissible. But if the fetus is alive in the womb of its dead mother and the soul has entered its body and there is a chance of its surviving till the time it is taken out, it is obligatory to take it out immediately. Further, till the death of the fetus in the womb of its dead mother is not ascertained, it is not permissible to bury her along with the fetus. And if a living fetus is buried with its dead mother and there is even a probability of its being alive after the burial, it is obligatory to immediately exhume her body and bring it out from the womb. Similarly, if protecting the life of a fetus in its dead mother's womb depends upon not burying her, apparently her burial should be delayed for protecting the fetus's life. And if someone says that it is permissible to bury the dead woman with the living fetus in her womb, and others, assuming his view to be correct, bury her causing the death of the fetus in the grave, its blood money will be upon those who actually buried her. But if the death of the fetus can be directly linked to the opinion expressed by this person, he will be held liable for the blood money.

Question 253: The municipal authorities have decided to build two-storied graves to ensure better utilization of land. We request you to expound the rule of Islamic law in this regard.

A: It is permissible to build multi-level graves for Muslims provided it does not result in the reopening of a Muslim's grave and disrespect to him.

Question 254: A child fell into a well and died in it, and its water prevents the body from being retrieved. What is the rule applicable to it?

A: If will be left in the well which will be the child's grave. And if the well is not someone else's property or if its owner agrees to close it, it is obligatory to close it.

Question 255: It is customary in our region to perform the ritual chest beating and flagellation with chains only during mourning ceremonies of the Immaculate Imams (a), martyrs, and major religious figures. Is it permissible to perform these rituals on the death of such persons who belonged to the Voluntary Force or those who were engaged in providing some kind of service to the Islamic government and the Muslim nation?

A: Although there is no problem involved in performing these rituals as such in the above mentioned instances, their performance does not benefit the departed soul. It is therefore better to hold fatihah ceremonies and to recite the Noble Qur 'an for his sake.

Question 256: What is the rule applicable to a person who considers nightly visits to graveyards as effective in Islamic training despite the knowledge that visiting graveyards at night is makruh?

A: There is nothing objectionable in it.

Question 257: Is it valid for women to participate in funeral ceremonies and to carry the coffin?

A: There is no problem in that.

Question 258: It is a custom among some tribes to borrow money, on the death of some persons, for buying a large number of sheep (which causes a substantial loss) to feed all who participate in the mourning ceremonies. Is it permissible to incur such a burden for complying with such customs? What is the rule of the divine law with respect to the bereaved families and the participants in the mourning ceremonies?

A: If the cost of preparing the food is being borne by the adult heirs of the deceased and they have given their consent to it, it is permissible, regardless of the manner and quantity involved. But if they intend to spend the wealth of the deceased, this depends upon the provisions of the will.

Question 259: If a person is killed in the present circumstances by a mine in a certain region are the rules of a martyr applicable to him?

A: The rule of burial without ghusl and shroud is exclusively meant for a martyr who has been killed in battle.

Question 260: Brothers belonging to the Revolutionary Guard Corps frequent the Mahabad, Urumiyeh [in Iran] and other areas where they are at times ambushed and engaged in combat by elements hostile to the Islamic Revolution, leading sometimes to their martyrdom. Is it obligatory to give ghusl or tayammum to these martyrs, and will it be considered a battlefield?

A: If that region is a battle ground between the forces of truth and the deviant insurgent band, the rules pertaining to a martyr will be applicable to someone who is martyred from among the forces of truth.

Question 261: Is it valid for a clean-shaven person whose children are either fugitive Munafiqin or among those who have announced their repentance, to lead the believers in mayyit prayers [offered after someone's death] over the body of a deceased believer?

A: It is not improbable that the conditions considered essential for the jama 'ah and its leader for all the other prayers are not necessary in mayyit prayers, though they may be observed as a supererogatory precaution.

Question 262: If a believer is killed in some parts of the world for the sake of the implementation of Islamic laws or in protest rallies, or on the front of implementation of the Ja'fari fiqh, will he be considered a martyr?

A: He is entitled to the reward and merit of a martyr, though the rules concerning the burial rites [tajhiz al-mayyit] are specifically meant for those who have been martyred in action during wartime.

Question 263: If a Muslim is sentenced to death in accordance with the law and approval of the judiciary on the charge of drug trafficking and the sentence is carried out:
1) Is it valid to offer mayyit prayers upon him?
2) What is the rule concerning participation in mourning ceremonies held for such a person as well as recitation of the Noble Qur 'an and elegies of the Ahl al-Bayt (a)?

A: A Muslim who has been given death sentence is like all other Muslims and all the rules applicable to them are applicable to him, including the Islamic rites pertaining to the dead.

Question 264: Does touching a bone which has flesh on it and has been amputated from a living person require the ghusl for touching a corpse [mass al-mayyit]?

A: It is obligatory to perform the ghusl in the above-mentioned case.

Question 265: When a tooth is pulled out, some tissues of the gums also come out along with it. Does the touching of this tissue require performance of mass al-mayyit bath?

A: Ghusl is not obligatory, but if some flesh of the gums is also pulled out along with the tooth, the rule applicable to a corpse will apply to it.

Question 266: Do the rules pertaining to the touching of a corpse apply to touching a Muslim martyr who is buried in his clothes?

A: Ghusl for touching a dead is not obligatory after touching the body of such a martyr.

Question 267: I am a student of medicine and am forced at times to touch corpses while performing dissections without knowing whether the corpses belong to Muslims or not, though the officials say that these corpses have definitely been given ghusl. With attention to what has been said, please explain our duty with respect to prayers and other religious acts after touching these corpses. With reference to what has been said, is ghusl obligatory for us?

A: If it is not ascertained that the corpse has been given ghusl and you have doubts in this regard, mass al-mayyit bath is obligatory on touching such a corpse or a part of it, and a prayers offered without mass al-mayyit bath is not valid. But if it is ascertained that the corpse has been given ghusl, it is not obligatory to perform mass al-mayyit bath on touching it or a part of it. even if there is a doubt in the validity of its ghusl.

Question 268: A martyr whose name and address are not known is buned with the bodies of a number of children in a single grave. After a month certain facts are known indicating that the martyr was not a resident of the city (where he is buried). Is it valid to exhume his body?

A: If he was buried in accordance with the rules and norms of Islamic law, one may not exhume his body.

Question 269: If it be possible to know what is inside a grave and take television pictures of its contents without digging and removing the earth, will it amount to opening of the grave?

A: Taking pictures of a buried corpse without digging and opening the grave and exhuming the body does not amount to opening of the grave.

Question 270: The municipal authorities intend to demolish the chambers surrounding a graveyard for widening the lanes. Hopefully you will oblige us by answering the following questions:
1) What is the responsibility of the graveyard's supervisory committee vis-a-vis the graves of believers present in those chambers?
2) Is it permissible to exhume the bones of the dead and bury them elsewhere?

A: The demolition and exhumation of the graves of the believers is not permissible. In case exhumation occurs and a Muslim's corpse or not yet decomposed bones of a Muslim's body are uncovered, it is obligatory to bury them again. The supervisory committee as such has no special responsibility in this situation.

Question 271: If someone starts demolishing a Muslim graveyard without paying attention to the rules of Islamic law, what is the duty of other Muslims in regard to this person?

A: It is obligatory for the others to forbid him from munkar [wrong deeds] by paying attention to all of its conditions and stages.

Question 272: My father was buried 36 years ago in a graveyard, and presently I am thinking of using that grave for myself with the permission of the Endowments Department. On this basis, is it necessary for me to take the permission of my brothers in this regard, if this graveyard is a waqf?

A: For burying another dead body in a grave existing on a land which is a public waqf, it is not necessary to take the permission of its heirs. But before the bones of the buried corpse decompose, it is not permissible to open the grave for burying another body.

Question 273: I am a student of medicine. As there is a scarcity of natural bones which we require for study at my faculty, is it permissible to use bones found in ruined graves? Further, is it obligatory to perform mass al-mayyit bath on touching skeletons present in museums or bones found in graves?

A: It is not permissible to take bones from a graveyard of Muslims if doing so depends upon opening a grave, and if the bones belong to a corpse whose having been given ghusl is not known, it is obligatory to perform ghusl on touching them.

Question 274: What are the conditions in which opening the grave is permissible? Presently there is a group which is engaged in excavation for finding the bodies of the martyrs of the war; what is the justification for doing this?

A: If the body of a martyr is buried after observing all the rules of Islamic law, and the proving of a right does not depend upon opening the grave, it is not permissible to exhume even if the intention is to identify the body.

Question 275: Please mention the circumstances in which it is permissible to open the grave, and if there is a way for demolishing a cemetery belonging to Muslims and converting it into other centres, please explain it.

A: The cases in which opening the grave is not forbidden are mentioned in the risalahs, and it is not permissible to change and transform a Muslim cemetery that is a waqf for the burial of Muslims.

Question 276: Is it permissible, after taking the permission of a religious authority, to open graves and use for an alternative purpose a cemetery which is a waqf for burying the dead?

A: Permission is of no avail in cases where it is not permissible to open a grave or to demolish a cemetery that has been endowed as a waqf for burying the dead.

Question 277: A man died nearly 20 years ago, and some days ago a woman died in the same village, and by mistake they dug the man's grave and buried her in it. What is the rule in this regard presently, keeping in view that there was nothing in the grave of that man?

A: In the circumstances mentioned in the question, there is no duty to be performed presently by others, and the burial of a corpse in the grave of another corpse does not by itself result in permissibility to open the grave for transferring the body to another.

Question 278: There are four graves in the way of one of the roads which obstruct its continuity. As there are shar'i problems involved in the opening of the graves, please guide us regarding what needs to be done so that the municipal authority does not commit an act violating Islamic law.

A: If the building of the road does not require digging up or opening the graves and it is possible to build the road above them, or if it is necessary that the road be built where the graves are located, then there is no problem involved. Otherwise it is not permissible to build the road over the graves.

Rules of Unclean Substances [Najasahs]

Question 279: Is blood clean?

A: The blood of an animal having blood which flows from its body on being cut, irrespective of whether it is a human being or not, is najis.

Question 280: During a mourning ceremony for Imam Husayn (a) a person strikes his head forcefully against the wall and blood gushes out splashing on the heads and faces of other participants in the ceremony. Is this blood clean?

A: Human blood is najis in all circumstances.

Question 281: If a blood stain remains on the dress after it has been washed, is that faint colored stain najis?

A: If only the stain and not the blood itself is present, and it does not disappear on washing, it is clean.

Question 282: What is the rule pertaining to a spot of blood present in the egg?

A: It is considered clean, but eating it is prohibited.

Question 283: What rule applies to the sweat of a person who has become junub through a forbidden act, and, similarly, to the sweat of an animal that eats human excrement?

A: The sweat of a camel which eats human excrement is najis. But as for the sweat of other animals apart from the camel that eat human excrement and the sweat of a person become junub through a prohibited act, their taharah is more probable [aqwa], although it is obligatory to observe precaution and abstain from praying with the sweat of janabah resulting from a forbidden act.

Question 284: Are the drops of water which fall from the dead body before its washing with pure water but after its washing with nabk water and camphorated water clean?

A: Until the third washing of the dead body is not completed, it will be considered najis.

Question 285: Is the dead skin which at times falls of from the hands,lips and feet, clean or najis?

A: That skin which separates by itself from the hands, lips, feet or any other part of the body, is clean.

Question 286: A person on the war front faces a situation in which he is compelled to kill and eat a pig. Are the moisture on his body and his saliva considered najis?

A: The sweat and saliva of a person who has eaten prohibited and najis meat is not najis and therefore he requires no cleaning. However, all that which comes into contact with pig's meat in the presence of moisture is considered najis.

Question 287: In view of the use of brushes in painting and sketching, and considering that good quality brushes are imported from non-Islamic countries and are generally made of pig's hair and are accessible to all, especially in cultural and informational centres, what is the shar 'i rule regarding using such brushes? Further, what is the rule concerning writing Qur'anic verses and traditions with these brushes?

A: Pig's hair is najis and its use is not permissible where taharah is required by Islamic law; but there is no problem in uses where taharah is not necessary. Further, if it is not known whether the brush is made of pig's hair or not, there is no problem in its use even in cases where taharah is required.

Question 288: A prominent scholar who had come to Germany said that it is obligatory to take notice of only three kinds of doubts, namely, those relating to meat, leather and edible oils, and that it is not necessary to entertain doubts in other instances. Is this opinion correct? If so, there are vegetable oils here, which do not contain any objectionable ingredient on the basis of what is written on their containers. But an investigation by some brothers showed that a small quantity of animal fat is added to a particular type of these oils without mentioning it in the list of ingredients. What is the rule pertaining to this issue?

A: Meat, whose being halal or halal and clean depends on slaughter as per Islamic law, will be considered as that of a dead animal which is not slaughtered in an Islamic country. But regarding animal fat, it is considered halal and clean as long as it is not confirmed that it is of an animal which has not been slaughtered as per Islamic law or that it has become najis due to contact with something najis.

Question 289: If the dress of a junub person becomes najis with semen, what is the rule if a hand touches the dress when there is moisture in any one of them? Secondly, is it permissible for the junub person to give this dress to another for washing it? Is it obligatory for a person who has had a wet dream to inform someone who volunteers to wash that dress about its najasaW.

A: Semen is najis, and if it comes into contact with something when moist, whereat its contamination may spread to other things, it leads to that thing's becoming najis, and it is not necessary to inform the person washing the dress about its najasah.

Question 290: After passing urine I perform istibra', but after that a liquid smelling like semen is discharged. Please explain the rule applicable to me for performing prayers?

A: If youare not sure that it is semen, and the shar 'i signs for the discharge of semen do not accompany it, then it is clean and the rule applicable to semen does not apply to it.

Question 291: Are the droppings of the crow najis?

A: It is quite probable that they are clean.

Question 292: Scholars mention in their treatises on practical rules that the droppings of the animals and birds whose meat is not eaten are najis. If so, are the droppings of animals and birds whose meat is eaten, such as the cow, sheep and hen, najis or not?

A: Droppings of animals whose meat is halal for eating are clean.

Question 293: If there is najasah (such as excrement) in or around a lavatory, and there still remain some traces of najasah after the place is washed with kurr or qalil water, is the place where no traces of najasah are visible and where water has certainly reached, najis or clean?

A: The place where najis water contaminated by contact with najasah has not reached is considered clean.

Question 294: If a guest renders any household article of his host najis, is it obligatory for him to inform the host about it?

A: It is not obligatory to inform him unless it is something eatable or drinkable, or is a utensil used for food.

Question 295: Does something which comes into contact with a najis object become najis. And if it becomes najis, does this continue to apply to every subsequent contact or is limited to the initial ones?

A: Up to three subsequent contacts its najasah is confirmed, and from the fourth contact onwards taharah is most likely, though it is better (as a supererogatory precaution) to abstain from it.

Question 296: While using shoes made of leather from an animal not slaughtered according to Islamic law, is it obligatory to wash one's feet before performing wuzu ? Some say: It is necessary to do so if the feet perspire in the shoes. And I have observed that the feet do perspire, either slightly or profusely, in all kinds of shoes. What is your opinion on this issue?

A: If a person is sure that his feet have perspired in such shoes, it is obligatory for him to wash his feet for the purpose of prayers.

Question 297: What is the rule concerning a child's wet hand, his saliva and leftover if he regularly makes himself najis? What is the rule applicable to children who place their wet hands on their feet?

A: As long as it is not certain that they have become najis they will be considered clean.

Question 298: I am suffering from a disease of the gums and in the doctor's opinion I must constantly massage them. But doing so leads to parts of the gums turning black and it looks as if blood has coagulated in them, and when I place a tissue paper on them it becomes red. Therefore I use kurr water for the taharah of my mouth, though the blood that has clotted remains for some time and does not disappear on washing.Now, after the contact with kurr water is broken, will the water which enters the mouth and is spewed out from the mouth after passing over these parts and contact with particles of blood clotted in the gums be considered najis, or will it be considered saliva and so clean?

A: It is considered clean, though it is better [as a supererogatory precaution] to abstain from it.

Question 299: I want to ask if the food which I eat and which comes into contact with the particles of blood coagulated in the gums becomes najis or not? If it does, does the mouth cavity remain najis after that food has been swallowed?

A: The food in question is not considered najis and there is no problem in swallowing it. The mouth also remains clean.

Question 300: Since some time it has been rumored that cosmetics are najis, and it is said that when a fetus is delivered its placenta is removed and put in cold storage, and it is also said that they even store it along with the dead fetus and manufacture cosmetics, like lipsticks, from it. As we use these materials at times, or rather some lipstick is also swallowed, is it najis?

A: Rumors do not constitute a shar'i proof of the uncleanness of cosmetics, and there is no problem in your using something whose najasah is not confirmed through a reliable shar 'i method.

Question 301: Minute hair-like fibers fall off from every dress and piece of cloth, and we find these minute fibers if we observe the water in a washtub while washing clothes. Accordingly, when the washtub is full of water and connected with tap water, while immersing clothes in it its water overflows from its sides. Due to the presence of these minute fibers in the water which overflows from the washtub, as a precaution I clean the whole place. Or when I take off the children's najis clothes I clean the place where these clothes were taken off even if it is dry, because I think those minute fibers have fallen there. Is observing such cautions necessary.

A: If the clothes are immersed in water for purification in a washtub with tap water running over them, the clothes along with the washtub and the water it contains, as well as the minute fibers which separate from the najis clothes and float over the water, all become clean. The minute fibers and the dust which separates from najis clothes is clean unless if is known for sure that they have separated from a najis spot. It is not necessary to observe precaution solely on the basis of doubt concerning the place from which they fall offer their belonging to a najis spot.

Question 302: What is the degree of wetness which results in its spreading from one object to another?

A: The criterion for spreading wetness is that the wetness should spread perceptibly from a wet body to another when one of them comes into contact with the other.

Question 303: What is the rule pertaining to clothes given to laundries and dry-cleaners from the point of view of tahara. It needs to be mentioned that religious minorities (Jews, Christians etc.) also have their clothes washed and dry-cleaned at these places, and it is also known that the owners of these shops use chemicals for washing clothes.

A: Clothes given to laundries and dry-cleaners, if they were not najis earlier, are considered clean, and their coming into contact with the clothes of religious minorities belonging to the Ahl al-Kitab [followers of religions that have divine scriptures] does not make them najis.

Question 304: Do the clothes washed in a fully automatic domestic washing machine become clean or not? The mode of functioning of this machine is as follows: Initially when the clothes are washed in it with detergent, some water and foam of the detergent spread on the glass door of the machine and the rubber surrounding it. After this, when water is drawn in for the second time for washing, the foam of the detergent fully covers the glass door and the rubber surrounding it. And at later stages the machine washes the clothes thrice with a qalil quantity of water and then the water used is driven out. Please explain whether the clothes washed in this manner are clean or not?

A: After the actual najasah is removed, if the water, which is connected through a pipe, goes into the machine and reaches the clothes as well as all the sides inside the washing machine and then separates from it and is drawn out, then the clothes will be considered clean.

Question 305: If water is thrown on the ground or in a pool or a bath in which clothes are washed, and then drops of this water fall on one's clothes, do they become najis or not?

A: If water is thrown on a clean spot or on a clean ground, the drops which splash from it are also clean.

Question 306: Is the water which flows on the streets from municipal garbage vans and at times splashes on people due to strong wind considered clean or najis?

A: It is considered clean unless one is sure of its najasah due to contact with something najis.

Question 307: Is the water which gathers in potholes in streets clean or najis?

A: Such water is considered clean.

Question 308: What is the rule concerning exchanging family visits with persons who do not pay attention to the rules of taharah and najasah in matters of food, drink, etc.?

A: On the subject of taharah and najasah, everything whose najasah has not been ascertained is considered clean prima facie by Islamic law.

Question 309: Please elucidate the shar 'i rule concerning the following from the point of view of taharah and najasah. the vomit (a) of a breast-fed child, (b) of a breast-fed child which is also given supplementary diet, (c) of an adult.

A: It is clean in all these instances.

Question 310: What is the rule applicable to something which comes into contact with al-shubhah al-mahsurah?

A: If it comes into contact with only some of its components it is not treated as najis.

Question 311: A person whose religion is unknown to us sells food stuff and touches it in the presence of transferable wetness. Is it obligatory to ask him about his religion, or will the principle of presuming taharah apply?

A: It is not obligatory to ask his religion and the principle of presuming taharah will be applicable in respect to him as well as the food he touches in the presence of wetness.

Question 312: A person stays in someone's home or with one of his relatives or is one of those who regularly visit someone's home, and this individual is one who does not care about taharah and najasah and thus makes the house as well as its furniture najis to such an extent that it is not possible to wash and clean them. In such a case, what is the duty of the residents in this case, and how is it possible for a person to remain clean, especially for prayers in which taharah is a necessary condition for validity? What is the rule in this regard?

A: It is not necessary to clean the whole house; the taharah of the clothes of the praying person and the place of resting the forehead during prayers is sufficient for the validity of prayers. The najasah of the house and its furnishings does not give rise to any additional duty apart from observing taharah during prayers and in eating and drinking.

Intoxicants And Similar Substances

Question 313: What is the rule applicable to grape or date juice which ferments on being boiled and whose two-thirds has not yet evaporated, although it is not intoxicating?

A: Drinking it is prohibited, but it is not najis.

Question 314: It is said that when a quantity of raw grapes is boiled to extract their juice while there are also with it a few or even a single ripe grape, the substance derived after boiling is prohibited. Is this opinion correct?

A: If the quantity of the juice derived from a few ripe grapes is so insignificant that it disappears in the juice of raw grapes so that it cannot be called the juice of ripe grapes, it is halal. But if the ripe grapes themselves ferment on being boiled then it is prohibited.

Question 315: Nowadays alcohol (which is in fact intoxicating) is used in making a large number of medicines, especially syrups, and in perfumes and colognes which are generally imported. Do you consider it permissible for a person who is aware of this, or one who is not, to buy, sell, prepare and-use such products?

A: An alcohol about which it is not known whether it originally belongs to the category of a liquid intoxicant is considered clean, and there is no problem in buying, selling and using liquids containing it.

Question 316: Is it permissible to use white alcohol for disinfecting the hands and medical equipment, like thermometers etc., or their use in medical work and treatment by doctors? White alcohol is an alcohol used for medical purposes and is also fit for consumption. Its formula is C˛HOOH. Is prayers valid in a dress on which a drop or more of this alcohol has fallen?

A: An alcohol which was not originally a liquid is considered clean even if it is intoxicating, and there is no hindrance to ifs use for medical and other purposes. Prayers performed in clothes which come into contact with such an alcohol is valid and they do not require cleaning.

Question 317: There is a substance called 'kafeer' which is used in food and medical industries, and during fermentation 5% to 8% alcohol is produced in the final product, and this small quantity of alcohol does not cause any kind of intoxication. Is there any problem from the shar 'i viewpoint in using this substance?

A: The alcohol present in the product, if it is itself intoxicating, is najis and prohibited, even if it is not intoxicating for the consumer due to its presence in a small quantity and being mixed with the thing produced. But if there is a doubt as to its being intoxicant in itself or as to its being originally a liquid, the rule will differ.

Question 318: 1) Is ethyl alcohol najis or not? (Apparently it is this alcohol which is present in intoxicants and is the cause of intoxication.)
2) What,is the criterion for the najasah of alcohol?
3) What is the method of ascertaining whether a drink is intoxicating?
4) What is meant by industrial alcohol?

A: 1) All the various kinds of alcohol which are intoxicating and originally in the liquid form are najis.
2) That it be intoxicating and originally a liquid.
3) If the mukallaf himself is not sure, then the information provided by reliable specialists will be sufficient.
4) It is an alcohol which is used for making colours and paints, in sterilizing surgical instruments and injection needles, and for other similar uses.

Question 319: What is the rule concerning using soft drinks available in the market, including soft drinks produced within the country (Coca Cola, Pepsi etc.), with the knowledge that their essential ingredients are imported and it is probable that they may contain alcohol?

A: They are considered clean and halal except where the mukallaf himself is sure that they are contaminated with an alcohol which is intoxicating and originally liquid.

Question 320: Basically, is it necessary while purchasing food stuffs to investigate whether the hand of its seller or the person preparing it has touched it, or whether he uses alcohol in preparing it?

A: To question and investigate is not necessary.

Question 321: I make atropine sulphate spray and alcohol is an essential ingredient in its formulation, that is, if we do not add alcohol to the compound it is not possible to prepare the spray. This spray is considered a counter weapon which can protect the Islamic forces from nerve gas. Is it permissible in your opinion to use alcohol in preparing medicines in the above-mentioned manner?

A: If the alcohol is intoxicating and originally liquid it is no/is and prohibited, but its use as a medicine does not involve any problem whatsoever.

Obsession [Waswas] And Its Cure

Question 322: Since several years I am suffering from the problem of waswasah, and it has really been tormenting me. Day by day this state is becoming more severe and has reached such a point that I suspect everything and my whole life is affected with doubt, mostly in relation to food and wet things. As a result, I am unable to behave like ordinary people. When I enter a place I remove my socks immediately because I think that they have become wet by sweat and will become no/is on coming into contact with najasah. I am even unable to sit on the prayers mat [sajjadah], and when I do sit, I stand up immediately lest the minute fibers of the prayers mat should stick to my clothes compelling me to clean them with water. Earlier I was not like this, and now I feel embarrassed by my conduct and always long to see someone in my dream to put my questions to him or hope for a miracle to change my life and take me back to my earlier state. Please enlighten me.

A: The rules of taharah and najasah are the same as those which have been explained in detail in risalahs, and in Islamic law all things are considered clean except those pronounced as najis by the Shari' [Legislator] and concerning which one is certain. Getting rid of waswas in this situation does not require dreams or miracles; rather it is the duty of the mukallaf to set aside his personal caprices and observe the teachings of the divine law and have faith in it. A thing whose najasah is not confirmed is not considered najis; so how do you know that the door, wall, prayers mat and other things which you use are najis, and what makes you sure that the minute fibers of the prayers mat on which you walk or sit are najis, and that their najasah will transfer to your socks, clothes and body? In any case, it is not permissible for you in your state to pay attention to this obsession. Disregarding obsessions with najasah and cultivating the practice of disregarding it will help you insha' Allah, with God's help) free yourself from the grip of waswas.

Question 323: I am a woman with university education and have several children. The problem I have is that of taharah. I grew up in a religious family and intend to follow all Islamic teachings. The fact that I am a mother of young children, makes me continuously involved with matters of urine and excrement. While washing away urine, drops from the toilet splash and fall on my feet, face and even my head, and every time I am faced with the problem of cleaning these parts. This has led to a number of problems in my life. On the other hand, it is not possible for me not to observe these rules as they relate to my faith and religion. I have even consulted a psychiatrist, but this too has yielded no result. Other things which trouble me are the dust rising from a najis thing or watching out for the najis hand of a child which I must either wash and clean or keep it away from touching other things, as removing the najasah from a najis thing is a very difficult task for me. At the same time, it is easy for me to wash utensils and clothes when they are only dirty. Therefore I hope you will make life easy for me with your guidance.

A: 1) Concerning taharah and najasah, the principle of the sacred Islamic law is to presume taharah: that is, in a case that you have the slightest doubt regarding something being najis, it is obligatory for you to consider it as not najis.
2) For those who are hypersensitive concerning najasah (and they call a person of this kind 'obsessed' in Islamic law), even if they are sure of the presence of najasah in a certain instance, it is obligatory upon them to consider them to be not no/is, except where they have seen with their awn eyes the becoming najis of a thing such that any other person seeing it would be sure of its contamination with najasah. Only in these instances it is obligatory for them to consider a thing as najis. This rule continues to apply to such persons until their sensitivity vanishes completely.
3) After the disappearance of original najasah, it is sufficient for cleaning any thing or any part of the body, to wash it once with tap water, and it is neither obligatory to repeat the process of washing nor to place it under water. And if the najis thing is a cloth or something similar, it should be wrung to the usual extent so that water comes out of it.
4) As you suffer from such hypersensitivity to najasah, you need to know that the dust rising from any najis thing is not najis in any manner in your case, and keeping an eye on the clean or najis hand of a child is not necessary. Similarly, it is not necessary to investigate whether blood has disappeared from the body or not. This rule will remain applicable to you until this sensitivity totally vanishes.
5) The laws of Islam are easy and lenient and are in harmony with human nature Do not make them difficult for yourself. Do not cause harm and pain to your body as well as your mind on account of them, as the state of worry and anxiety in these cases embitters the atmosphere of life. Further, God, the Glorious, is not pleased with your suffering and of those related to you. Therefore be thankful for the blessings of an easy religion, and gratitude for this blessing is to act in accordance with the divine teachings.
6) This condition is a passing curable phase, and many people have found relief after suffering from it by acting according to the above-mentioned procedure. So rely on God, the Exalted, and relieve yourself with determination and resolve.

Uncleanness of Kafir, Cleanness of Ahl al-Kitab, And the Rule Concerning Other Types of Kafirs

Question 324: Is a kitabi [follower of a religion with divine scripture] clean or najis?

A: It is not improbable that he may be essentially clean.

Question 325: Some Islamic jurists are of the opinion that the Ahl al-Kitab are najis, while some others consider them clean. What is your opinion?

A: The essential najasah of the Ahl al-Kitab is not established; rather, we consider them essentially clean.

Question 326: Are those Ahl al-Kitab who accept the prophethood of the Seal of the Prophets (s) but follow the practice of their ancestors in matters of worship [ibadat] considered kafir from the point of view of taharah?

A: Solely having faith in the prophethood of the Seal of the prophets (s) is not sufficient for considering someone Muslim. However, such persons, if they belong to Ahl al-Kitab, are considered clean.

Question 327: I and a number of friends together rented a house and then came to know that one of them does not perform prayers. After our seeking the cause from him he replied that he has faith in God, subhanahu wa ta'ala, but does not perform prayers. Considering that we eat food together and there is lot m of contact between us, is he najis or clean?

A: Solely forsaking the performance of prayers and not observing fast or other shar'i obligations, does not make a Muslim an apostate or najis. Rather, till his apostasy is not confirmed his position is the same as that of other Muslims.

Question 328: What are the religions whose followers are considered Ahl al-Kitab What is the criterion for defining the limits of social intercourse with them?

A: By 'Ahl al-Kitab' are meant all those who profess a divine religion and consider themselves the ummah of a prophet from among the prophets of God, the Glorious and the Exalted, may peace be upon our Prophet and his progeny and upon them, and also possess a heavenly scripture from those revealed to the prophets (a), such as the Jews, the Christians, and the Zoroastrians, and similarly the Sabaeans, who, on the basis of our research, are among the Ahl al- Kitab. Therefore, the rule of Ahl al-Kitab applies to the followers of these religions, and social intercourse with them, with observance of Islamic laws and morals, is not objectionable.

Question 329: There is a sect which calls itself 'Aliyullahi,' and it considers the Commander of the Faithful, Ali ibn Abi Talib (a), a god and believes in supplicating and seeking fulfillment of requests as an alternative to prayers and fasting. Are they najis?

A: If they believe that the Commander of the Faithful, Ali ibn Abi Talib (a), is a god, exalted is God above what they say, then the rule applicable to them is that of non-Muslims who are not Ahl al-Kitab.

Question 330: There is a sect called 'Aliyullahi' which says that Ali (a) is not a god, but neither is he less than God What is the rule applicable to them.

A: If they do not ascribe a partner to God, the One, the Munificent and the Exalted, the rule applicable to them is not that of a polytheist [mushrik].

Question 331: Is it permissible to donate the votive offerings of a vow made by a Twelver Shi'i and dedicated to Imam Husayn (a) or to the Ashab al-Kisa' (the Prophet (s), Ali (a), Fatimah (a), Hasan (a), and Husayn (a), to such centres where followers of the Aliyullahi sect gather and which amount, one way or another, to strengthening these centres?

A: Ascribing divinity to the Leader of the Monotheists Ali (a) is a false belief and takes its adherent out of the pale of Islam. Aiding the propagation of this perverse belief is prohibited. Further, it is not permissible to spend a votive offering for any other than its vowed purpose.

Question 332: There exists a sect in our region, around it and in some other parts which calls itself Isma'ili. Though they profess faith in the first six Imams (a) they do not believe in any of the religious obligations, nor in the authority of the Jurist Leader [wilayat al-faqih]. Please explain whether the followers of this sect are najis or clean?

A: The sole rejection of the imamah of the last six Imams (a) or any rule from among the rules of Islamic law, so long as that does not amount to rejecting Islamic law or the prophethood of the Prophet (s), does not entail kufr and najasah, unless they resort to abusing and insulting any of the infallible Imams (a).

Question 333: The vast majority of people here are kafirs (Buddhists). Therefore if a university student rents a house, what is the rule concerning its taharah and najasah? Is it necessary to wash and clean the house? It is noteworthy that most of the houses are made of wood and to wash them is not possible. Further, what is the rule concerning hotels and the furniture and articles present in them.

A: Unless it is confirmed that the hand or body of a non-kitabi kafir has touched something in the presence of transferable wetness, that thing will not be considered najis, and presuming that the presence of najasah has been ascertained, it is not obligatory to clean the doors and walls of homes and hotels, nor the furniture and articles present in them. All that is obligatory is to clean something only if it is used in eating, drinking, and prayers.

Question 334: There live a large number of people in Khuzestan who call themselves Sabaeans and claim they are the followers of Prophet Yahya [John] (a) and that they possess his scripture. It has also been established for the scholars of religion that they are the Sabaeans mentioned in the Qur 'an. Please explain whether they are among the Ahl al-Kitab.

A: The rule of Ahl al-Kitab is applicable to this group.

Question 335: It is generally said that a house built by the hands of kafirs becomes najis and performing prayers in it is makruh [undesirable]. Is this correct?

A: Performing prayers in such a house is not makruh.

Question 336: What is the rule pertaining to working for Jews and other non-Muslims and taking wages from them?

A: There is no essential objection in doing so, provided the work being done is not among the prohibited acts and is not detrimental to the interests of Islam and Muslims.

Question 337: In the region in which we are doing our military service there exist some tribes belonging to a sect called 'al-Haqq.' Is it valid to use the milk, yogurt and butter they produce?

A: If they profess faith in the principles of Islam, they are like all other Muslims in matters of taharah and najasah.

Question 338: The residents of the village where we study do not perform prayers because they belong to al-HaqQuestion sect, and we are forced to eat the food and bread prepared by them, and since we live day and night in that village, is there any problem in our prayers?

A: If they do not reject tawhid [the oneness of God] and nubuwwah [the prophethood of Muhammad (s)], or any of the essentials of the faith, and do not detract from the Messenger hood of the Messenger of Islam (s), kufr or najasah will not be attributed to them; otherwise it is obligatory to observe the rule of taharah and najasah while coming into contact with them and eating their food.

Question 339: One of our relatives was a communist, and when we were children he would give us a lot of money and gifts. What is the rule concerning the money and gifts if they are still with us?

A: If his kufr and apostasy have been confirmed and he had chosen the path of kufr after attaining puberty but before confessing faith in Islam, the rule that applies to the wealth of kafirs will apply to his wealth.

Question 340: Please answer the following questions:

First, what is the rule for Muslim students intermingling and shaking hands with students belonging to the deviant Baha'i sect at the primary, secondary, and high school levels, irrespective of whether they are boys or girls, mukallafor non-mukallaf, within or outside the school?
Second, what should be the behaviour of the teachers vis-a-vis students who either declare that they are Baha'is or are known to be such?
Third, what is the rule pertaining to using things used by all the students, such as drinking-water taps, latrine taps, pitchers, soap, etc., with the knowledge of presence of wetness on hands and the body.

A: All members of the deviant Baha 'i sect are considered najis and their coming into contact with something requires observing the rules of taharah in cases where taharah is required. But the behaviour of the headmasters and teachers with Baha'i students should be in accordance with the regulations and Islamic ethics.

Question 341: Please elucidate the duty of the believing men and women vis-a-vis the deviant Baha'i sect and the complications that arise due to the presence of the followers of this sect within Islamic society?

A: If is obligatory for all believers to counter the deceit and corruption of the deviant Baha 'i sect and to stop others from being misled and carried away by this deviant sect.

Question 342: At times the followers of the deviant Baha'i sect bring us food or something else. Is it permissible for us to use them?

A: It is not obligatory to return their gifts or refrain from accepting them, and in cases where you have a doubt that their bodies may have come into contact with these things in a state ofwetness, it is permissible for you to presume laharah. But you should try to guide them and lead them towards Islam.

Question 343: A large number of Baha'is live in our neighborhood and often visit our home. Some say that the Baha'is are najis while others say that they are clean. These Baha'is also exhibit good morals. Are they najis or clean?

A: They are najis, enemies of your religion and faith. So beware of them. my dear child.

Question 344: What is the rule pertaining to the bus and train seats which are used by Muslims as well as kafirs, and in some areas the number of kafirs is greater than that of Muslims. Should they be considered clean despite (he knowledge that perspiration in hot weather leads to transferable wetness ?

A: Unless one has specific knowledge of their najasah they will be considered clean.

Question 345: Studying abroad necessitates contact and association with kqfirs. In this case, what is the rule concerning taking food prepared by them (after ascertaining that it does not contain prohibited items such as the meat of an animal not slaughtered ritually) if there is a possibility of a kafir's hand having touched the food in the presence of wetness?

A: The mere possibility of a kafir's wet hand having touched it is not sufficient for creating an obligation for refraining from it. Rather, unless one is sure that such contact has occurred, it will be considered clean. Further, if the kafir is among the Ahl al-Kitab, he is not intrinsically najis, and if his wet hand touches something it does not render it najis.

Question 346: If all the expenses and cost of living of a Muslim living under the shelter of an Islamic government are met as a result of his working for a non-Muslim and he has close relations with him, is it permissible to establish strong and family ties with such a Muslim and to eat his food on occasions?

A: The establishment of relations by Muslims with such a Muslim does not involve any problem. But if such a Muslim fears that he might be led astray from the doctrines of his faith and other things by this non-Muslim he is serving, it is obligatory on him to distance himself from this work, and obligatory for others in such circumstances to forbid him from the wrongdoing.

Question 347: My brother-in-law had, regrettably, turned a total apostate due to various reasons, so much so that it led him to commit sacrilege against certain religious sanctities. Now, years after his renegading from Islam, he has sent a letter informing that he has come to believe in Islam, though he never prays or fasts. What kind of contact can his parents and other members of family have with him? Does the rule applicable to a kafir apply to him, such that it is obligatory to consider him najis?

A: Presuming that his earlier apostasy is established, if he has repented later, he will be considered clean, and there is no problem in his parents and other relatives having contact with him.

Question 348: Does the rule applicable to a kafir apply to a person who rejects some essential precepts of the faith, such as fasting, etc.?

A: If his rejection of some essential precepts of religion amounts to his rejection of the Prophet's prophethood, or to his denial of the Prophet's claim, or to his contempt of Islamic law, then it is an act of kufr and apostasy.

Question 349: Do the punishments prescribed for an apostate and the kafirs who are harbi [at war with Muslims] belong to the category of political issues and are thus among the duties of the Leader or are they permanent laws which will remain unchanged till the Day of Judgement.

A: They are laws of the divine law.


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